Hedging is a kind of language use which ‘protects’ your claims.

Hedging is a kind of language use which ‘protects’ your claims.

Using language with a suitable level of caution can protect your claims from being easily dismissed. It can also help to point the known standard of certainty we have in relation to the evidence or support.

Compare the next two texts that are short (A) and (B). You will notice that even though two texts are, in essence, saying the thing that is same (B) has an important amount of extra language across the claim. A amount that is large of language is performing the function of ‘hedging’.

Compare the following two short texts, (A) and (B). Just how many differences would you see in the second text? What is the function/effect/purpose of each and every difference?

You will probably realize that (B) is more ‘academic’, but it is important to know why.

(A) Extensive reading helps students to boost their vocabulary.

(B) Research conducted by Yen (2005) appears to indicate that, for a significant proportion of students, extensive reading may play a role in a marked improvement in their active vocabulary. Yen’s (2005) study learners that are involved 15-16 when you look at the UK, although it might be applicable with other groups. However, the study involved an opt-in sample, meaning that the sample students may have been more ‘keen’, or more involved in reading already. It would be beneficial to see whether or not the findings differ in a wider sample.

(please be aware that Yen (2005) is a fictional reference used only for example).

The table below provides some situations of language to use when making knowledge claims.

Try to look for types of hedging language in your own reading, to add to the table.

Phrases for Hedging

Language Function with Example Phrases

1) Quantifiers

a fraction
a minority/majority of
a proportion of
to some degree

2) Appearance

appears to
has the appearance of
is similar to
shares characteristics with
appears to stay line with

3) Possibility

has the possibility https://ninjaessays.info of
has the potential to
is in a position to

4) Frequency

tends to
has a tendency to

5) Comparatively

in a less complicated way than .
more simply than …
When compared to …

Into the context of …
…in certain situations…
Within some households…

7) Ev >Based on …
As indicated by …
According to …

8) Description in language

may be described as
could be considered to be
is sometimes labelled
can be equated to
the term is often used to mean
the term is often used to mention to
this may indicate that …
this may declare that …

Language categories compiled and devised by Jane Blackwell

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Academic Centre that is writing Institute of Education

Essays often sound tough, but they are the easiest way to publish an extended answer.
In this lesson, we will have a look at just how to write one.


Start your answer, and list what you will really about be writing

Write on the basic ideas which will answer your question


Re-write exactly what your ideas are and say why you have got answered them

Arguments, Keywords and Definitions

Before we start dealing with how an essay works, we need to proceed through three terms that people will used to describe that which you do for essay writing structure.
Argument = all of the main points you are going to write on in your essay.
Keywords = words which are important parts of the question
Definition = A one-sentence summary of one’s whole essay which you write in your introduction.
We will proceed through some situations in a moment.

Basic Introduction

To publish your introduction, follow these steps. All these steps means you start a sentence that is new.

  • Rewrite the question using keywords, through the name of text(s) and s that are author(
  • Write a one sentence answer (definition)
  • List all the main points of the argument

Exemplory instance of an Introduction

Are pigs in a position to fly? (Question)
Pigs aren’t able to fly. (Re-write of question)
they can’t fly because their bodies don’t allow them to. (Definition)
These are typically too heavy to float, they don’t have wings or propellers, in addition they cannot control aircraft. (Main Points)

The body forms most of your essay.
It will be the most part that is important of essay you write.
Within you, you have to argue all your points that are main explain why they reply to your question.
Each main point should always be in a new paragraph.

Each main point should really be in a paragraph that is different. Each paragraph must certanly be set out similar to this:

  • Topic Sentence: a short sentence where you repeat one main point from your own introduction.
  • Discussion: Explain why your point that is main is and provide reasons why.
  • Evidence: Proof that you will get from a text, a quote, or a ‘fact’. It will prove that your particular answer is right.
  • Lead out: complete the main point so it is possible to go directly to the next.

Exemplory instance of a Body Paragraph

Pigs are way too heavy to float. (Topic Sentence)
Their large bodies and weight mean that they are not in a position to float, which can be one of the ways a creature can fly. To float a pig would have to be lighter than air. (discussion)
A pig weighs 200 kilograms, and due to this weight, it’s not lighter than air. (Evidence)
that is why, a pig struggles to float and cannot fly. (Lead out)

Conclusion of Essay Writing Structure

A conclusion is a summary that is short of you’ve got printed in your body paragraph.
It must ‘tie’ everything together.

As pigs aren’t able to float, they do have wings and cannot control aircraft, they unable to get into the air, and fly that is therefore cannot.